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表面活性剂在制浆造纸中的应用

来源: 石家庄市海森化工有限公司  日期:2019-10-11 11:19:52  属于:产品技术
文章摘要:

表面活性剂是造纸化学品的重要组成部分,广泛应用于造纸制浆、湿部、表面施胶、涂布以及废水处理等过程。

蒸煮用表面活性剂

表面活性剂用作蒸煮助剂,可以促进蒸煮液对纤维原料的渗透,增进蒸煮液对木材或非木材中木质素和树脂的脱除,并起分散树脂的作用,用作树脂脱除剂的阴离子表面活性剂有十二烷基苯磺酸钠四聚丙烯苯磺酸钠、脂肪醇硫酸钠、二甲苯磺酸、缩合萘磺酸钠、烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚硫酸钠等;非离子表面活性剂有烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚、脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚、脂肪酸聚氧乙烯酯、聚醚等。用非离子表面活性剂脱除树脂时,以壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚最为有效,阴离子表面活性剂和非离子表面活性剂的复配共用效果更好,既可促进木质素和树脂的脱除,又能提高纸浆得率,例如:添加质量比为l:(1-2)的二甲苯磺酸和缩合萘磺酸水果拉霸多人版钠与壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚的复合物,即可收到良好的树脂脱除效果。

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废纸脱墨的原理是:借助表面活性剂使纤维与油墨湿润、渗透、膨胀、乳化分散、发泡、絮凝和捕集、洗涤。工艺方法主要有:① 洗涤法 突出分散功能。使油墨易于分散形成胶体丽脱除。② 浮选法:适度起泡,再进行油墨捕集等。③ 洗涤法和浮选法两者结合。废纸脱墨化学品主要有碱、水玻璃、螯合剂、双氧水、表面活性剂、钙盐等,其中表面活性荆为重要角色。作为废纸脱墨剂的主要表面活性剂有:阴离子型:脂肪酸盐、磺酸水果拉霸多人版盐、硫酸盐、磷酸酯盐、磺基琥珀酸酯。阳离子型:胺盐、季铵盐。两性型:甜菜碱、咪唑啉、氨基酸盐。非离子型:烷氧基化物、多元醇酯、脂肪酸烷酯、烷醇酰胺、烷基糖苷。选用何种表面活性剂视印刷品情况及脱墨工艺而定.因此严格地说废纸脱墨剂主要是一种表面活性剂系列的复合配方。

 造纸湿部中的应用

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分散松香胶制备是一物理化学过程,固体松香吸收热量变为液态松香,松香液和水之间存在着极大的界面张力,要降低这一界面张力只有通过加入表面活性剂达到。分散松香胶乳化剂和分散剂均为表面活性剂,选择好表面活性剂是制备分散松香胶的关键,常用的有阴离子 阳离子及两性离子等。我国目前用得最多的是阴离子分散松香胶,常用的乳化剂为聚氧乙烯型,如脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚磷酸酯、2-对苯二酚-3-(连苯乙烯酚二聚氧乙烯)丙烯磺酸钠、2-羟-3-(壬基苯氧基聚氧乙烯)丙烯磺酸钠等。有的采用阳离子聚丙烯酰胺、聚酰胺聚胺表氯醇、阳离子淀粉等作为阳离子乳化剂制备出阳离子分散松香胶。

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常用的树脂障碍控制剂有无机填料(如滑石粉等)、杀菌剂、表面活性剂、螯舍剂、阳离子聚合物、脂肪酶及膜分离剂等.而最常用的是表面活性剂阴离子表面活性剂是目前应用最为广泛的表面活性剂,它有高级醇硫酸盐、烷基苯磺酸及高级醇、磷酸酯等。阳离子表面活性剂主要为烷基胺盐或季铰盐。非离子表面活性剂主要有聚乙二醇型与多元醇等。另外.还有两性表面活性剂及各种多元复台物。剥离剂也是一种树脂控制剂,用来控制烘缸与纸页间的黏着力,润滑刮刀、烘缸.控制黏合剂分布等。主要有聚酰胺类聚合物乳液,如聚乙烯醇乳液、矿物油及表面活性剂配台喷涂有机硅乳液和聚胺聚酰胺类阳离子聚合物等。

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造纸表面施胶和涂布中的应用

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涂料分散剂:是涂料中最重要的助剂,其中大多数是表面活性剂,其性能是① 赋予颜料粒子电荷,使其相互产生斥力;② 覆盖于颜料粒子表面,起到保护性胶体的作用;③ 在粒子周围形成高黏度状态,防止多个粒子凝集。最早使用的分散剂为磷酸盐、聚硅酸盐、磷酸氢二铵、苯磺酸水果拉霸多人版与甲醛的缩合物、干酪素、阿拉伯树脂等。六偏磷酸钠、焦磷酸钠、四聚磷酸钠等是低含固量涂料中常用的分散剂。在高含固量的涂料中,通常采用高分子有机分散刺,如聚丙烯酸钠溶液、聚甲基丙烯酸钠及其衍生物,二异丁烯与马来酸酐共聚物的二钠盐溶液,以及烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚和脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚等。

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抗静电剂:通过在涂料配方中添加十八烷基三甲基氟化铵、聚氧乙烯失水山梨醇酯、烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚磷酸盐、聚苯乙烯磺酸水果拉霸多人版盐等可赋予纸张的抗静电性能。

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